# What is Portfolio Risk, and How Is It Calculated?

## Definition of Portfolio Risk

Portfolio Risk can be defined as the probability of the assets or units of stock that the company holds sinking, thereby causing a significant loss to the company in terms of their investment.

A portfolio is a combination or collection of stocks or investment channels within the company.

Within the portfolio, there are different investment stocks that the investor holds, and all of them individually have different risk assessments.

However, when they all combine in a portfolio, the risk is diversified and then different for a portfolio of the existing different stocks.

## The formula for Portfolio Risk

Portfolio Risk is measured by calculating the standard deviation of the portfolio. In this regard, standard deviation alone cannot calculate the portfolio risk.

There is a need to ensure that all the different standard deviations are accounted for with their weights and the existing covariance and correlation between the existing assets.

In this regard, covariance can be defined as the extent to which stocks move in the same direction.

In other words, it measures the extent to which the stocks act and responds similarly to market trends and other macroeconomic factors.

For example, if two stocks correlate +1, they will either increase or decrease hand in hand.

On the other hand, if two stocks correlate -1, it implies that if one stock generates a positive return, the other stock is unlikely to generate a positive return too.

Therefore, portfolio risk calculation includes three main variables: the weightage of the respective assets in the portfolio, the standard deviation of those assets, and the covariance of those assets.

Using these three variables, the following formula is used to calculate portfolio risk:

Portfolio Risk = Sqrt [(Weight of Asset A) ^2 * (SD of Asset A) ^2) + (Weight of Asset B)^2 * (SD of Asset B)^2) + 2(Weight of Asset A*Weight of Asset B*Correlation between Asset A and Asset B *SD Asset A * SD Asset B)]

## Example of Calculating Portfolio Risk

To further understand and explain how portfolio risk is calculated, the following example is given:

ABC Co. has invested in 2 stocks, Alpha and Beta. They have purchased 40,000 shares (\$1 each) of Alpha and 60,000 shares (\$1 each of Beta).

The standard deviation of both the stocks is 1.5 and 2 each. In the same manner, the correlation coefficient of both stocks is -1.

In the example given above, portfolio risk is calculated by using the following formula:

Portfolio Risk = Sqrt [(Weight of Asset A) ^2 * (SD of Asset A) ^2) + (Weight of Asset B)^2 * (SD of Asset B)^2) + 2(Weight of Asset A*Weight of Asset B*Correlation between Asset A and Asset B *SD Asset A * SD Asset B)]

Portfolio Risk = sqrt [(0.42*1.52) + (0.62*22) + 2(0.4*0.6*1.5*20*-1)]

Portfolio Risk = sqrt (0.36)

Portfolio Risk = 0.6

This implies that the portfolio risk is 0.6, or 60%. This normally lies in the medium-high risk, meaning the risk profile is relatively high.

## Importance of calculating Portfolio Risk

Portfolio Risk management is described as one of the most important elements from the company’s perspective.

In this regard, it is important to ensure that companies can realize the inherent risk they undertake when designing their portfolio.

Keeping the risk-return principle in mind, many organizations are often risk-averse and do not prefer taking on projects with higher risks.

Therefore, calculating portfolio risk can help them realize and duly craft their portfolios so that the risk strategy of the portfolio matches the risk profile they want to maintain.

Calculating portfolio risk can also help them realize their potential and ensure that they can predict the outcome of their investment.

For example, if they have invested a chunk of their investments in a risky stock, they can then try to balance that off by purchasing a stock that is not very risky.

## Limitations of Portfolio Risk

Even though it is considered very good practice to have a general understanding of the portfolio risks, it can be seen that certain limitations also need to be accounted for.

Portfolio Risk is not always correct and dependable.

Therefore, it cannot be identified as a single true source of investment from the company’s perspective.

Several other decisions also need to be accounted for when it comes to organizations deciding on where to invest and how to invest.

In the same manner, it can also be seen that calculating portfolio risk is a challenging task. In a typical portfolio, numerous different stocks are included.

Ensuring that accurate portfolio risk is calculated is subject to available figures for the stocks, like standard deviation and the correlation between the assets.

## What is Portfolio Risk Management, and Why Is It Important?

Portfolio risk management is essential to managing an investment portfolio, whether in stocks, bonds, or alternative investments.

Portfolio risk management aims to identify, analyze, and manage the risks associated with investing. In other words, it’s about minimizing losses while still optimizing returns.

The key to successful portfolio risk management is understanding the sources of risk that can impact your investments.

These include market-related risks, such as price fluctuations and interest rate volatility; company-related risks, such as a company’s business performance; macroeconomic risks, such as political changes and global events.

Liquidity risks include having to sell investments quickly due to limited buyers; and, finally, personal circumstances, which can also pressure a portfolio.

By correctly accounting for all these factors, an investor can create a well-diversified portfolio that uses a combination of protective strategies such as hedging and position limits to minimize their exposure while still achieving desired returns.

Through diversification, investors can attempt to reduce overall volatility by spreading their investments across multiple market sectors and asset classes so that if one area of their portfolio experiences losses, the other areas may prevent outright loss or help offset it.

Additionally, sound financial principles such as keeping costs low through bargain hunting (fees and commissions) or considering the tax implications of specific products or positions can also be essential for portfolio risk management.

Many investors will use professional money managers who specialize in this area and can provide them with sophisticated tools to assess their unique investment needs while complying with all applicable regulations and protecting personal information.

In conclusion, proper portfolio risk management allows investors to control their portfolios while taking advantage of available opportunities to reach desired objectives.

This involves knowing what investments should be made and managing the associated risks to minimize losses and maximize gains over time.

## Top 10 Portfolio Risk Management Software

Risk management software helps financial professionals make informed decisions about their investments.

It provides key data, tools, and insights to help them identify risks and dynamically manage their portfolios.

Many solutions are available in the market today, but here are some of the top choices for portfolio risk management software:

1. Eze Software’s Investment Suite: Eze Software’s Investment Suite is a comprehensive solution that helps firms optimize both front- and back-end investment operations. The suite offers portfolio analytics and reporting, comprehensive audit capabilities, order/position management systems, and compliance monitoring solutions.
2. BNexus: BNexus is a cloud-based portfolio risk management platform that helps institutional investors measure, analyze and monitor the performance of investments across multiple asset classes. This solution includes advanced analytics tools such as Monte Carlo simulations, real-time portfolio tracking, stress testing scenarios, and more.
3. Bloomberg: Bloomberg is a leading provider of financial news, data, and analytics for institutions worldwide. The company’s range of solutions assists with multiple aspects of risk management, including portfolio analysis, trading desk optimization, and capital allocation processes.
4. Altiplan: Altiplan provides an end-to-end suite of risk solutions tailored to meet the needs of institutional investors such as banks or hedge funds. This solution covers market data collection & validation, analytics, and reporting capabilities to support various quantitative strategies, such as hedging or option pricing models.
5. RiskMine: RiskMine is a robust enterprise platform designed for large banks or other financial institutions with sophisticated needs in terms of risk assessment and scenario analysis capabilities. It offers multi-dimensional views into portfolios with user-customizable metrics and predictive modeling applications such as Value at Risk (VaR).
6. BlackRock Aladdin: Blackrock Aladdin provides an integrated technology platform for asset managers to measure performance across multiple asset classes while also providing insight into potential risks associated with those investments through analytics tools such as scenario planning or stress testing simulations.
7. MSCI Barra One: Barra One from MSCI is a multi-asset class platform that allows users to access global markets while quickly assessing potential risks by taking advantage of in-depth analytic features and research from leading industry experts on economic trends or geopolitical events which could affect financial markets globally.
8. Axioma Risk Manager: Axioma Risk Manager is a popular cross-asset class tool designed for buy-side firms that need to perform sophisticated stress tests against benchmark indices or custom sector scenarios before making any major allocation decisions regarding their investment portfolios.
9. FINCAD Analytics Suite: FINCAD Analytics Suite includes proprietary algorithms focused on helping analysts quickly assess exposure across multiple asset classes while obtaining deeper insights via volatility surface calculations or diversification analytics along with market impact simulations within one convenient suite.
10. Quantifi XL: Quantifi XL from Quantifi Solutions offers potent derivatives pricing models based on the latest industry standards for fixed income, credit & commodity tradable instruments, plus extensive portfolio profiling & mark – to – market capabilities designed to help quantify overall exposure & identify areas that require additional attention when watching over complex portfolios.