Direct Material Yield Variance: Definition, Formula, Explanation, And Analysis


Direct Material Yield Variance is a subdivision of material usage variance. It measures the effect on the cost of any difference between the actual usage of material and that justified by the output produced.

In simple words, it measures differences between output produced on a given dimension or level and the level of output actually achieved during the period.


Direct Material Price Variance

                = (Actual Yield – Standard Yield) * Standard Price


Direct material yield variance measures the impact of the material cost of change in production yield from the standard.

It provides different dimensional explanation to material usage variance after material mix variance.


The material yield variance is different from other material variances in the sense that it is based on output unlike other variances which are based on input.

Favorable material yield variances depict improved productivity than standard yield resulting in lower material cost.

On the other hand, adverse material yield represents lower production achieved during a period for a given level of input resulting in high material cost.


Marvel Inc produced 20,000 items of idols from marvels franchise during November, 2018. Following raw materials were purchased and consumed by Marvels Inc during the period

Material Quantity Used Standard mix  per item Actual Price Standard Price
Cloth 100 kgs 11 kg $ 75 per kg $ 70 per kg
Paint 150 kgs 14 kg $ 21 per kg $ 20 per kg
Clay 250 kgs 26 kg $ 11 per kg $ 10 per kg

Direct Material variance variance shall be calculated as:

We calculate standard yield for total materials input as:

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500 kgs of materials should yield 9804 kgs

Standard yield = 500 * 1000/51 = 9804 kgs

Now we proceed to calculate standard cost of materials per bag as

Cloth = 11 * 70 = $770

Paint = 14 * 20 = $280

Clay = 26 * 10 = $260

Total standard cost = $ 1310

We calculate the material yield variance in totality as

Material Yield variance

                = (Actual yield – Standard Yield) * Standard price per unit

                = (10,000 – 9,804) * 1310

                = $ 256,760

We can also yield variance for each product as: 

Cloth 196 * 770 $ 150920
Paint 196 * 280 $ 54880
Clay 196 * 260 $ 50960

Adding all the variances together,

Direct Material Yield Variance = $ 256760 Favorable

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