Who Owns Facebook? (Individual and Institutional Shareholders)

Facebook From Then Until Now

Once upon a time, in 2004, a young Harvard student named Mark Zuckerberg, along with his friends Eduardo Saverin, Dustin Moskovitz, and Chris Hughes, founded a revolutionary social networking website called Facebook. 

Little did they know that their creation would transform how people connect and share information globally.

In 2006, Facebook opened its doors to the public, allowing anyone with a valid email address to join the platform.

Its user base began to increase as people found joy in connecting with friends, sharing updates, and exploring a new form of online social interaction.

By 2007, Facebook surpassed MySpace, its main competitor at the time, becoming the world’s most visited social networking site. 

The company’s focus on user experience and intuitive interface attracted millions of users, propelling Facebook to new heights.

In 2008, Facebook introduced a controversial advertising program called Beacon. 

It allowed users’ activities on external websites to be shared on Facebook, raising concerns about privacy and data sharing. 

Despite the backlash, Facebook continued to evolve and launched Graph Search in 2009. 

This innovative feature enabled users to search for information about their friends and connections, making it easier to navigate the ever-expanding network.

In 2010, they marked the introduction of the Timeline feature, which allowed users to create a personalized chronological record of their lives on the platform. 

People could share photos, milestones, and memories, cementing Facebook’s position as a digital repository of personal stories.

In 2011, Facebook launched the Like button, a simple but powerful tool that allowed users to express approval and appreciation for content on the site.

The Like button quickly became ubiquitous across the internet, reshaping how people interacted with online content.

Facebook went public in 2012, becoming one of history’s most anticipated initial public offerings (IPOs). The company’s valuation soared, cementing its status as a tech giant.

In 2014, Facebook made a bold move by acquiring WhatsApp, a popular messaging platform, for a staggering $19 billion. 

This acquisition further expanded Facebook’s reach and solidified its presence in the mobile communication landscape. 

In 2015, Facebook made another significant acquisition, purchasing the photo-sharing platform Instagram for $1 billion.

These acquisitions showcased Facebook’s strategy of integrating successful platforms into its ecosystem while allowing them to retain their unique identities.

However, Facebook faced a challenging period 2016 when it became embroiled in a series of data privacy scandals. 

The most notable among them was the Cambridge Analytica scandal, where the personal data of millions of users was improperly accessed and used for political purposes. 

The incident triggered a global data privacy debate and increased scrutiny of Facebook’s practices.

Despite the setbacks, Facebook continued to innovate. In 2017, the company launched the News Feed, a personalized feature that displayed updates and news from users’ friends and connections. 

This feature aimed to keep users engaged and informed within the Facebook ecosystem.

The year 2018 saw the introduction of the Watch feature, enabling users to watch a wide range of videos on the platform. Facebook aimed to compete with other video streaming platforms and capture a share of the growing online video market.

In 2019, Facebook expanded its services by launching the Marketplace feature, allowing users to buy and sell products within the platform. 

It provided a convenient and secure avenue for individuals and businesses to connect and engage in e-commerce activities.

2020 brought an unforeseen turn of events as the COVID-19 pandemic swept the globe. 

With people confined to their homes, Facebook experienced a significant surge in usage as individuals sought connection and entertainment online. 

The platform became a lifeline for many, facilitating virtual gatherings and supporting communities during a challenging time.

In 2021, Facebook embraced the potential of virtual reality by launching the Horizon Worlds feature. 

This new addition provided users with a virtual reality social platform, allowing them to interact and explore virtual environments.

Amidst ongoing challenges, Facebook took a bold step in 2022 by changing its name to Meta Platforms.

This rebranding reflected the company’s vision of expanding beyond social media and embracing the metaverse—an immersive, interconnected virtual reality space.

As the year 2023 unfolds, Meta Platforms, formerly known as Facebook, faces persistent challenges. 

Data privacy concerns continue to loom, prompting the company to reevaluate its practices and implement stricter regulations.

Additionally, competition from other social media platforms intensifies as users seek alternative platforms prioritizing privacy and security.

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Despite the obstacles, Meta Platforms remains committed to innovation and adapting to the changing landscape of technology and social interaction. 

With its rich history and vast user base, the company continues to shape the digital world, empowering individuals to connect, share, and explore new possibilities in the ever-evolving realm of the metaverse.

Executive Summary:

As a business executive at Meta Platforms, formerly known as Facebook, you oversee a social media empire that includes Facebook, Instagram, WhatsApp, Oculus VR, Messenger, and Workplace. 

Meta Platforms has become a global leader in the social media industry with a mission to connect the world and make it a more open and connected place.

Facebook, the flagship platform, boasts over 2.9 billion active users and is a hub for individuals to connect, share content, and stay informed about current events. 

With its 1 billion active users, Instagram has established itself as a major photo and video-sharing platform, enabling users to express themselves and discover captivating content.

With over 2 billion active users, WhatsApp offers a convenient messaging app that allows users to communicate, make calls, and share various forms of media with their contacts. 

On the other hand, Oculus VR delves into the realm of virtual reality, providing users with immersive experiences through its virtual reality headsets.

Meta Platforms’ business strategy centers around two key areas: building the metaverse and expanding its advertising business. 

The metaverse is viewed as the future of the internet—a virtual world where people can interact and engage with digital content.

As a pioneer in this domain, Meta Platforms invests heavily in developing metaverse technologies to shape and define this evolving landscape.

Regarding revenue generation, advertising plays a crucial role in Meta Platforms. 

Selling advertising space on its platforms constitutes a significant portion of the company’s revenue, accounting for 97% in 2022. 

With its extensive user base and advanced targeting capabilities, Meta Platforms aims to capture a larger advertising market share.

However, Meta Platforms also face a set of challenges that require attention. 

Data privacy concerns have been recurring, with the company facing criticism and regulatory scrutiny over its privacy practices. 

The company has taken steps to address these concerns and enhance user privacy, but ongoing vigilance and adaptation are essential.

Competition poses another challenge for Meta Platforms as emerging social media platforms like TikTok and Twitter gain popularity and potentially threaten their market share. 

To maintain its position as a leader, Meta Platforms must continuously innovate and adapt to changing user preferences and market dynamics.

Additionally, the metaverse itself presents a challenge. While Meta Platforms is actively investing in its development, the business model and monetization strategies for the metaverse are still evolving. 

The company must navigate this uncertainty and ensure that its investments in the metaverse translate into sustainable growth.

As a business executive at Meta Platforms, your role involves strategic decision-making, fostering innovation, addressing privacy concerns, navigating competition, and capitalizing on the vast potential of the metaverse. 

By embracing these challenges and leveraging the company’s strong foundation, Meta Platforms aims to continue its growth trajectory and shape the future of social media and virtual reality experiences.

Business Model of Facebook:

Products and Services:

Facebook offers a diverse range of products and services that form the backbone of its social media ecosystem.

The company’s flagship platform, Facebook, allows users to connect with friends and family, share photos and videos, and stay informed about the latest news and events. 

Instagram, another prominent product in Facebook’s portfolio, focuses on photo and video sharing, allowing users to express themselves creatively and discover engaging content. 

WhatsApp, a messaging app, enables users to send messages, make calls, and share various forms of media with their contacts. 

Oculus VR, a subsidiary of Facebook, develops and sells virtual reality headsets, providing users with immersive experiences and access to virtual reality content.


Facebook’s primary customers are the users of its platforms and services. These users comprise individuals seeking social interaction, content consumption, and communication. 

The platform also caters to businesses and organizations leveraging Facebook’s advertising capabilities to reach and engage with their target audiences effectively.

Value Proposition:

Facebook’s value proposition lies in its ability to connect people and foster an open and connected world. 

By providing a robust platform for users to connect, share content, and stay informed, Facebook facilitates social interaction, strengthens relationships, and enables individuals to express themselves. 

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The company’s value proposition also extends to businesses, offering them a targeted advertising platform to reach and engage with specific demographics and interest-based audiences.

Revenue Streams:

Advertising forms the primary revenue stream for Facebook. The company generates revenue by selling advertising space on its platforms. 

Advertisers pay to display their ads to Facebook’s vast user base, leveraging advanced targeting options to reach their desired audience effectively. 

Facebook’s advertising platform offers a range of formats, including display ads, sponsored content, video ads, and more, catering to different advertising goals and strategies.

Cost Structure:

Facebook’s cost structure comprises several key components. The operational costs associated with maintaining and expanding its platforms form a significant portion. 

This includes investments in infrastructure, server maintenance, software development, and platform security. 

Additionally, marketing and sales costs are crucial in promoting Facebook’s advertising solutions and attracting advertisers to the platform. 

The company also invests in research and development to drive innovation and enhance user experience.


Facebook is renowned for its profitability. 2022 the company reported a net income of $39.39 billion, highlighting its strong financial performance. 

The advertising-driven business model and a vast and engaged user base have enabled Facebook to generate substantial profits.

Key Trends:

Several key trends have a significant impact on Facebook’s business model. 

Mobile usage has transformed user behavior, with more users accessing the platform through smartphones and tablets. 

To adapt, Facebook has prioritized mobile optimization, developing mobile-centric features and advertising solutions to cater to the preferences and needs of mobile users.

The growth of video content consumption has become increasingly prominent. 

Facebook has recognized this trend and introduced various video-related features and advertising options to capture the attention and engagement of users. 

Video content, including live streaming and short-form videos, has become vital to the Facebook ecosystem.

Data privacy has emerged as a critical trend affecting Facebook’s business model. 

With growing concerns regarding user privacy and data protection, the company has faced scrutiny and regulatory challenges. 

Adapting to evolving privacy regulations, implementing stricter data protection measures, and enhancing transparency are crucial aspects of Facebook’s strategy to address privacy concerns and maintain user trust.

By continually adapting to these key trends, Facebook strives to refine its business model, enhance user experience, attract advertisers, and drive profitability.

Through its diverse products and services, Facebook aims to connect people, enable self-expression, and provide a digital platform for businesses to thrive.

Facebook Capital Structure: Aspect Importance

Facebook has relatively low long-term debt, amounting to $31.4 billion as of December 31, 2022.

Equity Facebook’s equity consists of common and preferred stock, totaling $163.7 billion as of December 31, 2022.

Facebook’s capital structure is conservative, with a debt-to-equity ratio 0.2, well below the industry average of 0.5.

Importance The capital structure is vital for Facebook as it influences the company’s ability to finance its operations and growth. 

A conservative capital structure provides financial flexibility and reduces risk.

Key Trends Impacting Facebook’s Capital Structure:

The rise of mobile: Facebook’s expanding mobile advertising business is increasing the company’s need for debt financing. 

As mobile usage grows, Facebook may require additional capital to support its mobile-centric strategies.

The growth of video: Facebook’s significant investments in video content and related initiatives contribute to an increased need for debt financing. 

As video consumption continues to rise, Facebook may seek additional funding to fuel its video-centric growth plans.

The increasing importance of data privacy: Facebook’s privacy practices have attracted regulatory scrutiny worldwide. 

This heightened regulatory environment increases the company’s risk profile and may impact its access to debt financing or influence the borrowing terms.

Given these challenges and opportunities, Facebook’s capital structure is expected to evolve. 

The company will likely adapt its financing strategies to meet the demands of its growing mobile advertising and video initiatives. 

It will also address the regulatory landscape to maintain financial stability and minimize risk.

Who Owns Facebook?

Regarding the ownership of Facebook, several key stakeholders hold significant shares in the company. 

Let’s look at the major shareholders and their respective ownership percentages.

Facebook’s co-founder and CEO, Mark Zuckerberg, is at the forefront. 

With 351,000,000 shares to his name, Zuckerberg holds a substantial stake in the company. 

The market value of his shares is an impressive $95.38 billion, representing 13.60% of Facebook’s total market value. 

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As the visionary behind Facebook’s inception, Zuckerberg’s ownership reflects his significant influence over the company’s direction and decision-making.

Next on the list is The Vanguard Group, Inc., an investment management company. 

Holding 346,664,367 shares, The Vanguard Group, Inc. is another major shareholder in Facebook. 

Their shares hold a market value of $87.99 billion, accounting for 15.49% of the company’s total market value.

As one of the largest asset management firms, The Vanguard Group, Inc. significantly impacts Facebook’s shareholder landscape.

BlackRock, Inc., another prominent investment management company, also holds a considerable stake in Facebook. 

With 281,861,203 shares, their ownership represents a market value of $71.57 billion, constituting 12.76% of the company’s total market value. 

BlackRock, Inc.’s presence as a shareholder further emphasizes the widespread institutional interest in Facebook’s success.

Other notable institutional shareholders include State Street Corporation, Morgan Stanley, Bank of America Corporation, SSgA Funds Management, Inc., Capital Research Global Investors, and Northern Trust Corporation. 

Each of these institutions holds varying percentages of ownership, ranging from 1.42% to 4.08% of Facebook’s total market value.

Together, these shareholders shape the ownership structure of Facebook and play a crucial role in its corporate governance. 

While Mark Zuckerberg remains the largest individual shareholder, institutional investors such as The Vanguard Group, Inc. and BlackRock, Inc. hold substantial stakes, reflecting the trust and confidence in the company’s prospects.

It’s important to note that ownership percentages may fluctuate over time due to buying and selling shares in the market. 

Nonetheless, these key shareholders wield significant influence in shaping Facebook’s strategic decisions, ensuring its growth and success as a leading social media giant.

Who Owns the Most Share on Facebook?

Mark Zuckerberg owns the most shares in Facebook. He holds 351,000,000 shares, the highest among the listed shareholders. 

This represents approximately 13.60% of the total ownership of the company. 

Mark Zuckerberg’s significant shareholding underscores his influential position as the co-founder and CEO of Facebook.

The Company Own by Facebook

When we talk about ownership, it’s not just about Facebook itself. Let’s take a closer look at some companies that fall under the Facebook umbrella and who holds the majority stake in each.

First up is WhatsApp, a widely popular messaging app. Facebook owns a whopping 98.9% of WhatsApp, giving them significant control. 

With a market value of $196.72 billion, it’s clear that WhatsApp is a major asset for Facebook, constituting 70.59% of its total market value. That’s a massive slice of the pie!

Next on the list is Instagram, the go-to platform for photo and video sharing. Facebook owns 97.7% of Instagram, giving them a strong grip on the platform. 

With a market value of $156.46 billion, Instagram accounts for 53.87% of Facebook’s overall market value. Facebook’s acquisition of Instagram has paid off handsomely.

Oculus VR, a virtual reality company, is another entity fully owned by Facebook. 

With a 100% stake, Facebook has complete control over Oculus VR. While its market value of $10.44 billion may be relatively smaller than WhatsApp and Instagram’s, it still represents 3.42% of Facebook’s total market value. 

Virtual reality is an area of investment and innovation for Facebook, and Oculus VR plays a vital role in that vision.

Onavo, a mobile analytics company, is also fully owned by Facebook. With a 100% stake, Facebook has full control over Onavo. 

Although Onavo’s market value of $3.40 billion is comparatively smaller, it still contributes 1.14% to Facebook’s total market value. 

Onavo’s expertise in mobile analytics provides valuable insights for Facebook’s mobile strategy.

Lastly, we have LiveRail, an online video advertising platform. Facebook holds 100% ownership of LiveRail, making it an integral part of the company’s advertising ecosystem. 

While LiveRail’s market value of $1.10 billion may be relatively modest, it still contributes 0.37% to Facebook’s total market value.

Overall, Facebook’s ownership of these companies highlights its strategy of expanding its reach and diversifying its offerings. 

WhatsApp and Instagram, in particular, have become indispensable parts of the Facebook empire, accounting for a significant portion of its market value.

The Oculus VR, Onavo, and LiveRail acquisitions demonstrate Facebook’s commitment to exploring new avenues of technology and advertising. 

As the social media landscape continues to evolve, Facebook’s ownership of these companies positions it as a dominant player in the industry.